The story of David Ruggles : Black History 365

  • This entry for Black History 365 presents the story of David Ruggles. Leave a like if you’ve learned something new and give the page a follow so you can stay up to date with my future posts. As always, peace and keep it real.

David Ruggles was an abolitionist, businessman, journalist, hydrotherapist, and the first owner of a black bookstore in the United States. Ruggles was born in 1810 in Norwich, Connecticut, and attended the Sabbath school for the poor which began admitting people of color in 1815. Moreover, in 1827 he left Connecticut for New York City and pursued a steady job at a grocery store. He would work at that job for the next four years. Ruggles is widely accepted to be known as the first African American bookseller. While working at his bookstore, he extended many publications and prints that promoted the abolition of slavery in opposition to the efforts of the American Colonization Society which announced a black settlement in Liberia. This promotion was the catalyst for black settlement to leave the US (Mississippi to Africa) and make a significant impact on Liberia. Furthermore, Ruggles would later take on a printing job, letterpress work, picture framing, and bookbinding to augment his income. Unfortunately, in September 1835, a white anti-abolitionist mob burned down his store. 

In 1833 Ruggles began his travels across the Northeast promoting the Emancipator and Journal of Public Morals, an abolitionist weekly. Not only did Ruggles write articles and pamphlets, but he also gave lectures denouncing slavery and Liberian colonization. This gave him notoriety and made him a figure of rising prominence in abolitionist circles in the late 1830s. Equally important, when the Underground Railroad was in effect, Ruggles was active during it from 1835 to 1838. In 1835, when the New York Vigilance Committee was organized, Ruggles became the secretary of this rare interracial organization. His work with the committee led to his involvement in numerous court cases where he helped organize the legal defense against fugitive slaves who fled up North. In the first year of the organization’s existence, Ruggles intervened in over 300 fugitive slave cases. In September 1838, Ruggles took on the case of an escaped Maryland slave by the name of Frederick Washington Bailey. Later Bailey changed to what everyone knows him as today Frederick Douglas. 

    Fast forward to 1842 and David Ruggles is a shell of himself and in poor health. At this time virtually blind and his physician didn’t think he would live more than a few weeks. Lydia Maria Child, a prominent white abolitionist, learned about Ruggles’ health and brought him to Northampton, Massachusetts where the Northampton Association of Education and Industry was located. It was composed of fellow abolitionists, and they accepted him as a member. In addition, while he was recuperating, he learned about hydrotherapy. He was said to be able to diagnose ailments by his sense of touch, called “cutaneous electricity”. Ruggles’ first patients included wealthy members of the Northampton Association of Education and Industry, which further enhanced his reputation as a healer. Not to mention, On January 1st, 1846, Ruggles purchased land and a building so he could conduct hydropathic treatments. He became famous in the field and modestly wealthy, offering a cure for ailments claimed by conventional medicine to be incurable. William Lloyd Garrison was one of his notable patients. Ruggles continued his profession as a hydropathist up until he began experiencing an inflamed optic nerve in his left eye in September 1849. From there he was placed in the care of his mother and sister. Three months later on December 26th, 1849, David Ruggles, died in Northampton, Massachusetts of a severe case of inflammation of the bowels.        

Mine is better than yours: Take The Stress Out Of SANDWICHES

Something needs to be done. It needs more flavor! : Why Deli Sandwiches Taste Better Than Yours

Can you name your favorite sandwich? Is it a club sandwich? Maybe a BLT? What about a chicken sandwich? Or even a breakfast sandwich to start your day. No matter your preference, you’ve probably considered the sandwiches you’ve made for yourself as lackluster compared to the Delicatessen and there’s a reason behind it. In addition, included are a few tips for improving your sandwiching-making experience. 

There’s a science behind why sandwiches tend to taste better when a sandwich marker makes them for you. It’s believed that you’re fixated on eating it (the result) and not the process. On the other hand, when it’s your turn you start to lose interest because you have to put the work in. With that said, I don’t subscribe to this notion because even if the process takes longer on my end, I’m glad that I put in the effort to complete something tasty. However, I understand that the habitual act of going to a delicatessen or sandwich shop causes a person to have high expectations that have to be consistently met or exceed their level of satisfaction. 

Quality and Freshness/Bread

Without bread you don’t have a foundation to hold everything together, therefore you don’t have a sandwich. Moreover, bread that’s too soft will quickly get soggy trying to contain all those ingredients, and tough bread will hurt your jaw with every chew. 

A combination of high-quality bread and ingredients will complement the meats, vegetables, and cheeses for flavorful eating every time. Let’s divulge into the advantages Delicatessens have over a consumer. First, Delicatessens have a relationship with bread purveyors and individual bread bakers, so they’re constantly supplied with deliveries of quality freshness that’s not available in supermarkets for consumers. Not to mention, some delis even employ a baker, and that baker can source the highest quality flours made by millers from the finest selection of whole grains. 

Slicing for sandwiches 

Layering a sandwich is a work of art (shout-out to sandwich artists, I never liked that term) so not having the right toppings or enough, can make or break the results. Moreover, don’t be frugal when choosing the slices of meat for your sandwich from a deli worker who can accommodate your requests on how thinly sliced you’d like your meat and cheeses. However, sometimes consumers like the easy way out. They prefer the convenience and might not want to talk and wait for their order (I used to be guilty of this), and will resort to buying pre-packaged sliced meats that are full of preservatives. Furthermore, once the sandwich is constructed from those types of packaged meats, it can cause a disparity with the other ingredients in the sandwich and lead to dissatisfaction. 

Sandwich making tips 

    The tips below will explain how to preserve the freshness of a sandwich even if you’re in a hurry. No one wants to eat a soggy sandwich, so save yourself from that sloppy mess with these tips. These tips are from an article that I will link at the end of this post. 

  • Assemble at your destination: Yes, it’s an extra step to prep your ingredients and pack them separately, but storing your wet (tomato, pickles, spread, etc.) ingredients separately from your dry ones (meat, cheese, bread) prevents you from having to bite into a damp sandwich.
  • Save the spread: If you don’t have time to pack all your delicious sandwich ingredients separately, make yours in advance but add the spread just before eating so it doesn’t have time to soak into the bread.


Don’t be that person who doesn’t season what’s going on in your sandwich before consumption. Season those onions, tomato slices, that crunchy water (lettuce), or whatever toppings you add because it will not only enhance the sandwich but adding these things will become habitual once you taste the difference. By the same token, consider blandness an enemy to your taste buds. So, optimize that sense of taste with a sweet and savory creation. Don’t stand there idly when a “sandwich artist” prepares your sandwich, take heed to how they season your sandwich so you can mimic the process and save money in the long run. 


Given these points, as mentioned in the beginning, scientists (real ones) believe that if a consumer has extended exposure to the same stimuli (in this situation, the sandwich making) it decreases consumers’ satisfaction and physiological responses to it, lessening their desire to eat it. So, if you don’t enjoy the sandwiches you make compared to the ones you get at the Deli, it could very well be your mind playing tricks. Lastly, there are all sorts of sandwiches for everyone so check out these 30 sandwich recipes in the article linked at the bottom of this post.  

Leave a like if you enjoyed what you’ve read and give the page and follow so you can stay up to date with my future posts.

Works Cited 

Weiss, Jacqueline. “Why Deli Sandwiches Taste Better Than Yours | EatingWell.” EatingWell, 28 Sept. 2022,

Climate Injustice Part 2 : Racism Fueled

  • Before reading this, I would advise for you to take a look at my previous post titled Climate Injustice so you can have a better understanding about what I will talking about in this post. Thank you.

There are blaring issues with how the racist fossil fuel energy system is. The fossil fuel economy is killing black americans. 

America is ubiquitous with racial inequalities that span centuries. Black people are 2.5 times more likely to be killed by police and five times more likely to be incarcerated than whites. However, it’s not just the U.S. criminal justice system that is fundamentally and consistently racist, the fossil fuel industry is, and in this post, I’m going to explain and discuss their hazardous actions towards the environment that Black people live in. 

If a society wants to run on fossil fuel energy, then there is going to be a need for sacrifice zones. In other words, places, where the air is thick with pollution and climate impacts, can be ignored. 

Last counted 68 percent of Black Americans lived within 30 miles of a coal-fired plant. Across the southern U.S., many of these facilities are more expensive to run than clean energy. Yet utilities such as Southern Company keep their constant super polluting uneconomic coal-fired plants open no matter the costs that will negatively affect Black communities, simply because it’s in their financial interests. This is a constant theme of rapacious entities capitalizing on the hard work of working-class Americans especially in blue-collar work and funneling their mess on many families.

Fossil fuel companies grow nervous as divestment movement grows ...

These kinds of actions will only lead to detrimental results. Case in point, fossil fuel corporations’ decisions have shortened Black lives and research has shown that white communities are exporting their pollution into Black people’s backyards. This results in Black children having high levels of asthma and the rates for that are twice as high as white children. We’ve seen the consequences of this pollution burden in dire terms during the COVID -19 pandemic, it’s a key contributor to Black Americans’ higher death rate.

Since this is Part 2 in my climate injustice posts I want to talk about the demographics I saw during the rally/protests I spoke about in Part 1. During the event, I couldn’t help but notice that the crowd was not diverse and only a small number of black and minority people were in the crowd. The majority were white and after this observation, it was reiterated to me from one of XR Boston members Matthew Kearney after I corresponded with him via email. He would have loved to have seen more of a diverse showing especially since these fossil fuel corporations are damaging the livelihood of Black Americans and have not been outed to the public on how minorities are preyed on in every facet in American life, and in this case, the fossil fuel corporations are the predators waiting for another opening. 

Coal plant emitting smoke

New research has shown that pregnant Black women are twice as likely to have stillborn babies than white mothers because of their unequal exposure to air pollution and heatwaves. With that said, climate change is real and is already hitting Black communities the hardest with relentless force. Make no mistake fossil fuel companies will continue to tell lies about the costs that their dirty infrastructure imposes on Black communities. If the truth was exposed to the public and if we valued Black lives, then there will be nowhere fossil fuel plants go. “I can’t breathe” has been chanted during Black Lives Matter protests due to lives being lost to the hands of police and the same mindset should apply with the fossil fuel corporations that continue to make it harder to breathe. 

If you enjoy reading this then give this post a like and comment if you’d like to chime in. Also give my page a follow so you can stay up to date with my future posts. As always peace and keep it real. 

COVID – 19 (Its impact thus far)

  • Hello reader, this post will be regarding the pandemic Corona Virus outbreak and the results thus far. If you could be please copy and paste the link below and the numbers this person is showing in the video has and will continuously be changing but it’s the last of the three categories of impact that needs to be addressed.
  • I also wrote a small poem after leaving an Open Mic and like all art it’s up for interpretation.

COVID – 19 better know as Coronavirus has been spreading rapidly and a vaccine is in the works so they claim and a cure is far from being created. From China to Italy to now the U.S. and more nations this relentless disease has caused people to panic and fear the worst and that’s evident with school classes and even semester canceled and on stand by, Sports leagues canceling seasons, events and business canceling activities, and more. Not to mention it’s difficult to come by hand sanitizer and believe me I did my best to find some to no avail but the strange thing I didn’t understand was the excessive hoarding of toilet paper and then it dawned on that people as I said before were preparing for the worst as if The Walking Dead or apocalyptic times were upon us. From my perspective am I scared? No. Am I concerned about my health and what can happen next? Yes. We’ll all have to take precautions and continue washing our hands and not touching our faces after we touch surfaces that could have contaminates, and lastly limiting the exposure to ourselves where there is a crowd of people around us that we presume to be sick.

  • As of today these are the results and the impact of the corona virus.

Total infections – 141,398 people have been confirmed to be infected. This includes suspected cases.

Total Deaths – 5,371 deaths have been confirmed

Total Recovered – 70,654 people have successfully recovered from the virus. However, it is stated that this figure might be highly inaccurate and it is subject to removal. I’m not too sure why these numbers would be subject to removal when people are in a state of panic and need optimism so their lives can return to normal. You can prove me wrong in the comment sections but from my perspective I feel that the U.S. government incorporated yes I said incorporated only wants people to focus on the two parts of information with this virus (Infections and Deaths) and this will thus allow them to influence people to act irrationally and selfishly (hoarding items) for “survival”. In closing these figures are as of current but will continue to increase and all we can do now is be mindful of others and ourselves until this situation has a solution. Take some deep breaths, meditate and do your best to practice mindfulness in whatever way you feel comfortable to eliminate the fear, because if not the fear will only diminish the strength of your immune system. Stay safe out there.

H1NL, Y2K, Swine Flu, the list goes on with viruses

and scares that put everywhere on the edge of the seats.

They hoped they’d still be able to feel their asses on the seats surface

and then realized that even though some have fallen the rest remain still able to feel their seats.

Leave a like and comment if would like to chime in. Also follow my page so you can stay up to date with future posts. As always peace and keep it real.

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Super Size Me 2 : Holy Chicken! (Review and analysis)

Super Size Me 2: Holy Chicken is filmmaker Morgan Spurlock’s sequel to his critically acclaimed original first film Super Size Film where he examined and consumed McDonald’s for thirty days which resulted in negative effects to his mind and body, but this time around he’s all about the chicken. Spurlock is still as unflinchingly direct to his interviewees and informative as the first film. The timing of this film’s release is justifiable due to it releasing last September in the US when the Popeye’s chicken craze swept news headlines during the last two months of the summer. I viewed this film free on YouTube so check it out before payment is attached to it. Anyways, in this sequel, Spurlock displays to viewers the operations, unfairness and misleading information that’s given to consumers such as how the chickens are handled and the labels placed on packages for consumption. To clarify I’m sure whenever you’ve been to a supermarket you’ve seen labels on chicken packages such as “Free-range”, “Cage Free”, “No Hormones”, “Humanely raised” and more which has influenced your decision to purchase it, but it always begs the question how accurate are these claims? We live in times now that organic foods are a trend and this alternative eating lifestyle has influenced chicken manufacturing companies on how to cater and appease consumers in exchange for consistent consumption and loyalty. Matter of fact, the USDA that’s responsible for developing and executing laws related to farming, agriculture, and food doesn’t have the efficient funding and cannot afford to test everything, so they sometimes don’t. If the USDA vouches the safety of the Big Chicken producers that farm and breed chicken for food then they will put that stamp of approval with those mentioned tag line labels to consumers and the cycle will continue until it reaches oblivious consumers and that’s why Morgan Spurlock went on another journey to reveal his discoveries these corporations want to conceal.

Image result for super size me 2

Spurlock teamed up with chicken farmers in Alabama to breed chickens from birth to the time they were sent to be butchered for consumption. Seeing it’s process from the beginning to the end was intriguing and vegetarians, vegans, and PETA would understand and witness that even with the right amount of nurture there are always causalities on farms and at times it can be brutal. Nevertheless, the chickens Spurlock helped raised held a purpose and the end goal was for consumption to the public. In addition, he heard stories from other farmers than the ones he worked with and their disdain towards Big Chicken. Big Chicken produces 99% of all poultry in the U.S. and is made up of five companies; Tyson, Pilgrims, Sanderson farm, Koche foods, and Purdue. Furthermore, Big Chicken dictates all the aspects when it comes to how chickens are grown and raised and they’ve even created a tournament system that pits chicken farmers against each other and compensates them according to the results they’ve produced. These results need to be adequate and to the standards of Big Chicken’s formula. For example, the grower that has the best bird gets the top pay. Jonathan Buttram the farmer Spurlock worked with compared Big Chicken to the likes of the Mafia as they don’t want farmers to disclose pertinent information that should not out be in the public because it will deter consumers from ever buying their products again and the backlash they’ll receive will damage their reputation but to be honest I feel the reputation of the farmers is more important because the tournament system is rigged because issues that can be corrected are not given a chance too. Big Chicken doesn’t care if a farmer happened to get sick birds, or the female chicks won’t grow, Big Chicken will say to those farmers tough luck and move on to the next farmer with no questions asked and this to farmers is unfair. Farmers have no input on how they can correct any problems that arise from inspection and an outspoken farmer will be blackballed and Big Chicken can even retaliate on their farm’s future.

Image result for super size me 2

What I found interesting about the first film compared to the sequel is that in the first film Spurlock is taking viewers on a journey of excessive consumption and this added an element of suspense and intrigue as we witnessed his highs and lows throughout his experiment. On the other hand, in the sequel, Spurlock is a participant and collaborator with chicken farmers and dives in so to speak within the fast-food industry. He cultivates the landscape for his chickens to be breed for meat and goes on to open Holy Chicken a restaurant in Columbus Ohio that feeds the public instead of himself with delicious crispy chicken. Overall the film isn’t as groundbreaking and memorable as the first film but I perceive it as an upgrade as Spurlock is on the opposite end aiding chicken farmers while acquiring a temporary farm to grow a flock of chickens for consumption, educating viewers the deceitful ways Big Chicken uses their power over chicken farmers, and ultimately opening his chicken restaurant. There were some funny moments and one of them that stood out to me was when Spurlock was trying to acquire a chicken farm and one man he tried to get help from recognized his name as the guy who made Super Size Me and chastised not only McDonald’s but a plethora of fast-food chains. This man tried to prevent Spurlock from purchasing a farm since he probably thought this guy (Spurlock) might be bad publicity and long story short he was never seen on camera to explain his issues with Spurlock. I know this was a long post but if you have made it this far thank you and I hope you gained some insight about the chicken farm industry and food industry as a whole because it’s a shady business. As I said earlier in the post check out the film on Youtube as it still free to watch but it does have ads. Hey, that’s the problem with free stuff there’s always a price you’ll have to pay even if it’s not monetary. Anyways leave and like and comment if you feel the need too and give my page a follow so you can stay up to date for future posts. Peace and keep it real.

My rating for the film: 3.5/5 B+

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